# Universal Semiorders

#### Thu, Mar 28, 2019 12:30 CET

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**Speakers:**
Alfio Giarlotta

Semiorders are binary relations that are complete, Ferrers, and semitransitive. In particu- lar, they display a transitive asymmetric part (strict preference), and a usually intransitive symmetric part (indifference). Semiorders are among the most studied categories of binary relations in preference modeling. This is due to the vast range of economic scenarios which can modelled by appealing to the notion of ‘just noticeable difference’. We give a univer- sal characterization of semiorders, which uses the notions of a Z-product and a Z-line. A Z-product is a modified lexicographic product of three total preorders (complete and tran- sitive) such that the middle factor is the chain of integers equipped with a shift operator. A Z-line is a Z-product having two linear orders as its extreme factors. We show that an arbitrary semiorder order-embeds into a Z-product having the transitive closure as its first factor, and a sliced trace as its last factor. Sliced traces are modified forms of the classical notion of trace, which are induced by suitable integer-valued maps. Their definition is remi- niscent of constructions related to the Scott-Suppes representation of a semiorder. Further, we show that Z-lines are universal semiorders, in the sense that they are semiorders, and each semiorder order-embeds into a Z-line. As a corollary of this description, we derive the result, due to Rabinovitch (1978), that the dimension of a strict semiorder is at most three. Many additional well-known facts are easy consequences of our characterization of semiorders.

Joint work with Stephen Watson, York University, Toronto, Canada.